Episode 18: Celebrating Indigenous Food Traditions Transcript

Oct. 4, 2021
[00:00:00.000] - Sabrina

Hi, Dominique. Thank you for being here. Do you want to tell us a little more about who you are and what you do professionally?


[00:00:07.060] - Dominique

I'm Dominique Henry. I'm the dietitian with the Pascua Yaqui Tribe.


[00:00:10.750] - Dominique

I'm a tribal member with the Navajo Nation, and I worked with the Pasqua Yaqui Tribe for about three years now. That's something that is pretty common in a lot of tribal communities - having a community dietitian. That just means that I kind of embed myself in the community. I do multiple community events through outreach, education, a lot of staff training to help boost knowledge and nutrition to tribal staff members. And then, of course, I do one on one consult with patients in the clinic. So I'm kind of all over.


[00:00:46.400] - Dominique

But, yeah, I got in this field because I grew up on the Navajo Nation, saw a lot of the diabetes really developed there. My grandfather lived with us, and he was really affected by it. So I saw that first hand. So I decided, how can I contribute to my community? And this is the field that I landed in.


[00:01:07.240] - Sabrina

Very cool. How would you define your culture?


[00:01:10.480] - Dominique

My culture. So we're just having a discussion how deep that question is. So this question really embeds who you are and where you grew up. I identify as being a Navajo woman, although I have ties to my family in Mexico, but born and raised on Navajo Nation.


[00:01:28.870] - Dominique

So the culture I grew up really surrounds most of that culture, which is, you know, very traditional in different ways, I guess, from other cultures. But for us, it's kind of like a lot of family oriented events, things are just really close knit, really with your family. I think it's difficult for a lot of people to come out of that culture to maybe join a bigger place like the University of Arizona, where you're embedded with other people and you have to be open to learning about other people and sharing your own culture and seeing where maybe you have similarities.


[00:02:05.170] - Dominique

And then that's how you can build relationships.


[00:02:07.220] - Ashley

That is a really good point. Coming into a bigger community or just a different community and finding ways to connect with people, and staying true to ourselves or remembering what's important that we bring with us. And then that's really valuable as well. Thank you for explaining your culture and where you grew up and all those things, and family being really the tight-knit community and importance around family.


[00:02:37.480] - Ashley

And because with family, comes, well with everything comes eating and food and celebration. How important is food in your culture? What are some traditions there?


[00:02:48.390] - Dominique

It's extremely important. There's specific foods for different events.


[00:02:53.850] - Dominique

For example, when you get married, you share from the basket a corn meal with your husband. So think of it kind of the equivalent of the cake. You know when the couples get married, sort of like that. But there's a lot of symbolism in the whole act. When my husband and I got married, we had to reference my grandfather at the time who was with us. And it was a whole lesson in itself. So you're continuously learning about your culture because, yes, you're exposed to certain things as you grow up. But there's other things that you encounter until you've reached I guess, that stage. So, like a wedding, you're not going to really know what's going on until you've experienced it yourself.


[00:03:36.280] - Dominique

And you say, oh, why are we doing this? Why is that? You know, there's significance of directions. You know, you pray in certain directions, and there's a way that you do that. Everything has a spirit, I guess. So you kind of respect everything around you.


[00:03:53.240] - Dominique

So that [our] culture. I feel like I'm always learning something new. And I think that that should be true for all of us. Many Indigenous cultures, especially, I think a lot of our cultural values are getting lost, not just language but just certain practices.


[00:04:10.260] - Dominique

So I would encourage anybody listening to, you know, talk to their elders or family members who practice, you know, cultural things and just document those things or practice it yourself. And that way you can pass that along because a lot of Indigenous culture is mainly just passed on verbally.


[00:04:32.910] - Ashley

Two things that I thought of when you were saying that is, well: A) How does it become difficult to keep some of those traditions going? Like, why do we feel the need to, I guess, not. As people who show up in this world like, why do we forget or not pay homage to those traditions?


[00:04:55.280] - Dominique

I think the number one would probably be a cultural barrier.  And like I said, a lot of this is passed on verbally. So if the generations aren't speaking the same language we're going to lose a lot of that. Another thing is, we mentioned earlier assimilation. We were talking about that off camera.


[00:05:11.800] - Dominique

But some people really assimilate and then just sort of put the cultural aside and they try to assimilate to whatever, I guess, society that they're trying to embed themselves into, so they lose that or they just move away, you know, they move away. They have families. They're growing up away from the culture and that family environment, and they just lose it that way.


[00:05:34.350] - Ashley

Yeah. So maybe that's like a permission slip. That it's okay, and it can really make us unique and cool and have these great experiences to remember that we can be respectful and keep hold of our traditions, because they make us different, which isn't a bad thing. And when you were saying that too, it made me think of you don't learn some of these things until you experience them yourself. I think, too, when you're kind of brought up in a culture, it just is like a way of living.


[00:06:07.650] - Ashley

You're like, I feel like maybe you think like, oh, everybody does this one thing or everybody does this, and then you come to find later, that's something really specific to our culture, our family. And I think that's sometimes a fun realization. I know I was raised in a different culture than my husband. And so when he comes to family events or when we do all these things, he had never heard of, seen, tasted, all of these things before, and so that was kind of a fun thing to share with someone you love. This is my culture. And this is why we do what we do.


[00:06:38.240] - Dominique

Yeah. I love that. I love sharing cultural things, not just my own. But I like meeting new people. And again, coming circling back around to food. It seems like that's what connects us. I feel like we all eat, teach me what you eat and how to eat it properly.


[00:06:52.490] - Dominique

I have a really good friend of mine who is Chinese, so we'll go out to eat, and she's taught me properly how you're supposed to eat some dishes. A lot of Chinese food that we are used to eating are very Americanized. So she's taught me a lot in that aspect. And then here, working with the Pascua Yaqui Tribe.


[00:07:10.830] - Dominique

I really enjoyed it because of that sharing, you know, they're still very cultural here as well. It's a small community. But the people I talked to here it's like, "wow, this cultural practice you do is very similar to what we do." It's not exactly the same, but the steps and the processes are very similar.


[00:07:29.950] - Dominique

And, of course, there's similarities in food so that's been fun to share these cultural commonalities.


[00:07:37.600] - Ashley

That's so true. I'll never forget, I went to culinary school and I'll never forget in international cooking, I had this realization one day that, like every culture around the world has a very similar way of making what here we would consider lasagna. Or, like in Italy, maybe they would consider like lasagna. But like, all these different cultures have a way of making this layered dish, this layered capital.


[00:08:01.330] - Ashley

And it's different in Greece than it is in Mexico, and that it's kind of the same technique and the underlining of, like, this is the process. And I found that way with a couple other dishes that were in international cuisine, like, we all have our own way of doing this. But the thread is very the same. Does that make sense?


[00:08:23.410] - Dominique

Yes, it does.


[00:08:24.330] - Dominique

I've noticed that as well. And that comes with the sharing of culture. So again, encouraging people to reach out. And I have noticed this when you kind of go out and come from a certain culture, you tend to gravitate people like you so definitely take this opportunity while you're at a large place, like the University, to immerse yourself in other cultures and partaking in podcasts like this to learn more about other cultures. So then that'll bring everybody together.


[00:08:53.870] - Dominique

And yeah, definitely. I have seen that myself.


[00:08:58.240] - Ashley

And you mentioned the tradition around the marriage ceremony. Is there any other specific things that you learned throughout your childhood or your upbringing that were really kind of focused on food, or another food memory that you have from growing up?


[00:09:13.030] - Dominique

Yeah. So another big one that's pretty common. I think still a lot of people do it, is when a baby laughs, you throw a party and you have a big meal.


[00:09:23.860] - Dominique

And there's something specific to you - you have a little piece of salt, like, think of a salt chunk before you grind it in a salt grinder, they kind of look like that. It's a specific kind of salt. And what you do as a guest is you'll have a prayer. And what we'll do is put a piece of this salt in the baby's hand, and it's kind of like the baby's giving to you and that's to symbolize generosity. So the baby grows up to be generous, and that's celebrated with the baby laughing.


[00:09:53.790] - Dominique

But, yeah, usually it's a big party. And the person who hosts the party is the person who made the baby laugh. It's kind of funny because people will come and the baby will start smiling, and then they'll jump back and say, "well, did this baby laugh yet, because I don't want to host this party."


[00:10:13.950] - Ashley

That's so funny.


[00:10:16.120] - Dominique

So that's a fun one. And I have a small child, so we're planning her first laugh party in a few weeks.


[00:10:23.410] - Ashley

That's so cool. I love those different milestones. The salt, you said it symbolizes generosity, and it's a special kind of salt. Does it have a name?


[00:10:32.200] - Dominique

I don't know - I'll have to ask. I'm sure it does.


[00:10:37.480] - Dominique

But the salt we've used is from Salt Lake. One of my aunts went there one year and she brought back this huge jar of salt; it is inside of this jar that they gathered from Salt Lake. And it's like a really pretty pink kind of color, kind of like that Himalayan pink salt from here in the states.


[00:10:58.280] - Ashley

That's really cool.


[00:10:59.900] - Sabrina

So how does the understanding of the history of Indigenous oppression, displacement and dispossession really play out in food and traditions around cultural food?


[00:11:13.630] - Dominique

This is a big one. This is getting a lot of conversation right now. So I think when people think of Native American cuisine, like, the first thing that pops in people's mind is Fry bread. You know, you're like, oh it's very traditional, but you're just like, well, not really. That was a result of basically the concentration camp we were all put in when taken off reservation. And we were giving these - what do they call them?


[00:11:38.410] - Dominique

Like, commodity food boxes, which are still current now. But that was the result. So from that, you know, again, being in nutrition field, you're seeing a lot of diabetes on reservations. They're really going back in history, and saying it was probably a result of the tribes being moved off of their homeland.


[00:11:56.300] - Dominique

Given these boxes of processed food, you know, the lot was taken away. So metabolically, we haven't really caught up with all of this processed food. They're seeing a lot of really, I see a lot of young children with pre-diabetes or diabetes, or body liver disease, and a lot of it is contributed from high intake of highly processed food. And so there's kind of that traumatic history. But from that, I think a lot of Indigenous people are trying to grow from that saying, okay, that happened, this is where we are now.


[00:12:29.480] - Dominique

We need to kind of go back and re-find our roots and try to reestablish whatever those traditional foods were. I've noticed that that's been a really big thing. A lot of online trainings, a lot of books and cook books have been coming out of Native chefs - kind of really trying to bring back cultural food.


[00:12:50.360] - Dominique

Where I'm from, there's been a lot of movement on trying to promote farming again. Farming used to be a really big thing that stopped for various reasons, but obviously Indigenous food would be probably corn and varieties of corn. So I always tell people who are trying to really watch their blood sugars like corn is not terrible. We have to be selective of what kind of corn we're getting.


[00:13:17.240] - Dominique

How we're incorporating it in our diets, combining it with other foods. And it's fine, right? No food is particularly terrible, especially if it's a whole food. But, yeah, I feel like Indigenous cuisine is sort of going to have a resurgence, at least, I hope so. That's been the hope from a lot of these people and trainings I've been going to is they're really trying to empower people to promote their own cultural food and not necessarily change it up too much, but keep it healthy.


[00:13:43.040] - Ashley

I wonder, too, if it comes with this, not a realization because people always knew kind of, well maybe they didn't, I don't know. The history around why food became inaccessible in communities that had such abundance and access at one point, but literally as the result of oppression and literally the result of displacement, these were taken away. And what resulted was some of these chronic conditions, these chronic health conditions. And then we look to communities and say, "Well, you're not making good choices," but it's like, but they don't have good choices to make. And so that's a very big difference. And I think it puts that individualism lens on it, when it's like, "no no no." Like what you're saying is getting back to what were the foods that were grown when this wasn't showing up as prevalent as it is now because this occurred out of environmental reasons, not because of personal responsibility.


[00:14:37.950] - Ashley

I think that's what frustrates me - that narrative. It's someone else's, or in any culture, like it's their fault. They did it to themselves.


[00:14:46.170] - Ashley

It's like, well, I feel like that's not true at all. So let's talk about why that's not true.


[00:14:51.120] - Dominique

Yeah. And that's another thing going into health care, you have people of color, any color I think going to see health care providers and they're reprimanded for whatever condition they have. Right? Or they're stigmatized saying, you are this. And like I said, in our population, a lot of diabetes. So saying, you are diabetic.


[00:15:12.460] - Dominique

But now we're trying to change the language to say, well, you're a person who has diabetes, right? This is a condition you have. It's not who you are. They're trying to separate those two things. So yeah, definitely.


[00:15:24.200] - Dominique

There is a history of that.


[00:15:25.310] - Ashley

Totally. And I think if we have any nutrition students listening, when you read in the textbooks, like, such and such group of humans is susceptible to this condition. I think as students, we take that at face value and we forget to ask, Well, why is that? And I think that why is so much richer of an answer. Why is certain groups more susceptible to certain conditions?


[00:15:47.140] - Ashley

Because they're usually if you dig deep enough, there is a reason. I thank you for answering that, because I know that's a hard question, but at the same time, I totally agree that it's becoming, I don't know, people took the blinders off. This movement towards understanding the why around different cultures is needed and important and going to give us more information to see better health providers, too. And that kind of answers the question, I think, Sabrina, do you think there's misconceptions about food and your culture, but do you think there's other ones?


[00:16:19.520] - Ashley

Do you think there's other misconceptions around food within the Indigenous population?


[00:16:25.000] - Dominique

I mean, I guess just like I said, going back to the Fry bread, I think that that's probably the biggest one. It's usually Indian Fry bread.


[00:16:33.930] - Dominique

So that's what people go to. So that would be biggest one - there's more, I guess, would be the big conception. The misconception would be like, there's more than just fry bread.


[00:16:43.000] - Ashley



[00:16:43.460] - Dominique

I would say fry bread is still going to be a part of native cultures.


[00:16:47.670] - Dominique

It has a history. But I think moving on from there, I would say that we should look beyond that and say, what else is there?


[00:16:54.900] - Ashley

What else is there. Do you have a favorite? Do you have favorite foods that you have learned to cook either from learning them from your community or patients or in your own family? Do you have favorite dishes?


[00:17:09.100] - Dominique

Yeah so one big one is blue corn meal. You can make a hot cereal, out of it. So there's a special way to prepare it. There's a special ingredient.


[00:17:18.360] - Dominique

So, it's funny because I've seen it served some places commercially, even at the hospital. There's a hospital here in Tucson that will serve it because there's a lot of Native people from reservations that come for services, but it doesn't quite taste the same because they're missing this ingredient. So there's, like this secret ingredient and it's ash from cedar. So they carefully collect it and so you sprinkle this in there and there's really limited research [about it]. I found a paper from, I think it's the University of New Mexico, that says that adding that to the cereal helps it digest well.


[00:17:58.060] - Dominique

And I guess it was showing it helps improve blood sugar regulation. So it's kind of funny. I feel like the more I look into certain - or any Indigenous food, really, you kind of go back and you're just like, wow. You know, we knew that this was good for us, our combining these foods did something in our bodies. So like I said, limited research on that.


[00:18:19.820] - Dominique

But I did find that a few years ago, and I was like, oh, that's really interesting that they looked into that. So that's one, there's a lot of foods that we were taught how to kind of go out and cultivate for ourselves to recognize edible plants. So one of them is tea. There's a plant that grows, it's kind of like camomile.


[00:18:41.040] - Dominique

So it grows, and you have to know what it looks like. And you're like, oh, that's what that is. I can pick them, clean it, dry it and you can make some tea. Another big one is Pinon, or Pinon nuts.


[00:18:51.810] - Dominique

So again, you'll see -


[00:18:53.180] - Ashley

The little ones?


[00:18:53.930] - Dominique

Yeah. So you've heard of pine nuts, similar to that. But these are from Pinon trees.


[00:18:59.600] - Ashley

Do they taste like the same, like buttery?


[00:19:02.440] - Dominique

Yeah. Kind of buttery, kind of sweet. I feel like it has a very cashew taste. But again, you have to know which season you can pick it in because you can't pick them every year.


[00:19:14.980] - Dominique

It's kind of like some people say three or four years, and then some of the elders will say you never pick them after the first snow, because then it's like they're not going to be good. So there are certain times of the year and where to go to get them. A lot of people still do that now, they'll be driving through the mountains and you'll just see people pulled off the road and you're like, oh, I know what they're doing. It's a tedious job of going and picking little seeds.


[00:19:42.310] - Dominique

But, yeah, those are a few things.


[00:19:44.680] - Ashley

That's cool. Do you feel like families cook together or that children are really involved in the kitchens growing up?


[00:19:52.600] - Dominique

Yes, so I remember growing up and contributing whatever, in whatever the process was. I always tell people, we used to, my grandparents were sheep herders. So they raised hundreds of sheep.


[00:20:07.630] - Dominique

And it was for the wool because my grandmother, she wool rugs. So she wool rugs, and then she would also go out, and she would take the certain plants that would add color, and she would do the dye herself. So all of it from the ground up.


[00:20:21.050] - Dominique

But I remember occasionally we would butcher one of the sheep for a meal, like a big meal. Right. So the whole family come together, but everybody would help. It was a process. So even the youngest of kids, they would be helping to clean certain parts of this sheep that was that was harvested.


[00:20:38.520] - Dominique

We would be cleaning it. And I was thinking, if anybody drove by that was not familiar, would be like, "what are these children doing with all of these animal parts," you know? But it was normal, you know, you did your contribution. I must have been like six or seven. You're playing part in that. You're helping make bread, you know, somebody's building a fire, or you're going to haul water because a lot of places didn't, and even still to this day, don't have running water.


[00:21:04.200] - Dominique

So there was jobs for everybody to do. We were kept busy. So everybody has a job to do. But yeah, and I tried to do that now even. So with my own children, I try to have them do the smallest tasks.


[00:21:16.500] - Dominique

So if it's tearing up lettuce for a salad, or pulling grapes off of the stem and washing them. So they're used to being in the kitchen.


[00:21:25.650] - Ashley

My daughter has favorite jobs that she'll do, and there's other things she doesn't have a ton of interest in doing. So we're still working on it.


[00:21:34.330] - Dominique

Yeah, I've learned that too. Like, okay, you like to do this. You don't do that.


[00:21:37.900] - Ashley

Which is funny that even at a young age that they have preferences around that. It's very interesting.


[00:21:43.810] - Sabrina

So are there any locations for places that sell or make food in Tucson that you would say were Indigenous food, or that you would like to go to to enjoy Indigenous foods?



Cafe Santa Rosa on South Sixth in South Tucson. So they, I believe, they're Azum or Tio, but they'll make the Fry Brad for you if you want to try that. Their cultural food, I think, has more Mexican influence. Here in Tucson, I think they're the only one that I can think of, right offhand.


[00:22:17.860] - Ashley

You mentioned some cookbooks and stuff. If people were interested in learning some of these, not that they'll be necessarily able to do the farming practices or those kinds of things, but if they're interested in kind of those combination of ingredients and things like that.


[00:22:31.410] - Dominique

Yeah, there's one health book. It's called The Sioux Chef, that spelled like the Sioux native tribe.


[00:22:38.600] - Dominique

So that's a good one. There's an Instagram post that I follow. I think her name is the Kitchen [inaudible 00:22:44]. She really practices kind of trying to non Westernize food, so she's pretty good. She's posts videos and things like that.


[00:22:53.190] - Dominique

So those are the two main ones right now. Yeah. There's a ton of social media once you look up like Indigenous Chef.


[00:23:00.880] - Dominique

There's tons out there. I just can't think of it right off the top of my head.


[00:23:04.530] - Ashley

Yeah totally. And if you think of any, we can always put them in the show notes for students to kind of peruse and just get that good exposure and just kind of learning about things that are different from your own culture can be really cool and inviting. And that maybe speaks to this last question is if students are interested, and maybe we will ask it this way. If students who come from Indigenous backgrounds, they're Indigenous cultures, that are here on campus. I know you said taking advantage of the big community is one thing.


[00:23:32.800] - Ashley

But what about if they are interested in their culture. What advice or resources do you have for them being on a bigger campus? How can they hold onto their culture? If that make sense?


[00:23:45.560] - Dominique

Okay. So you maybe want to encourage them to like you said earlier, you want to still retain who you are. And then as part of reaching out and kind of expanding your own horizons by meeting other different people is to share what you know, it could be the smallest thing.


[00:24:02.620] - Dominique

So from there, I feel like whatever you're sharing, people start asking you questions. You asking about the salt. Like, wow, I don't know. I'm gonna go find out. That opens that door. People will start asking you questions.


[00:24:12.900] - Dominique

What does this mean? Do you do this? You're like, yeah I do, but I don't know what it means. I'm going to go find out, you know? Because again, you said you grow up in this culture.


[00:24:20.520] - Dominique

You just sort of take it for granted. These things happen without you really thinking why. But when you pull yourself out of that, and you meet other people and they start asking you questions, then it makes you think you're like, I don't know why we do that. Let me go find out. Let me go ask somebody.


[00:24:36.990] - Dominique

Then you create your own personal knowledge, and then hopefully that's the way we keep these cultural practices alive.


[00:24:42.810] - Ashley

It helps you learn more about yourself even, which you could argue is what college is all about.


[00:24:50.360] - Ashley

Awesome. Thank you so much. That's really good. That's a really good point.


[00:24:53.560] - Sabrina

I did have one small question.


[00:24:55.250] - Dominique



[00:24:56.230] - Sabrina

Would you say that there's any staple spices that you use, specifically in Indigenous foods?


[00:25:02.760] - Dominique

Sadly, just salt. My husband is always like telling me he grew up with just really bland food. And it wasn't until we met that he learned how steak could be good. You know, he didn't know corn bread was supposed to be good. So, no.


[00:25:23.750] - Ashley

It's amazing what a little salt can do.


[00:25:26.470] - Dominique

I know. But then some people just go too crazy with it. You're just like "no". Taste your food first and then add the salt.


[00:25:33.880] - Dominique

Don't add the salt first.


[00:25:35.190] - Ashley

Also a good tip.


[00:25:36.270] - Dominique

But yeah, no. Unfortunately, not really.


[00:25:38.850] - Sabrina

All right. So that kind of concludes the Indigenous kind of questions, specifically with Indigenous foods.


[00:25:47.760] - Sabrina

So I'm just going to ask you a few questions that we ask all of our guests here on the podcast. So the first one would be, if you could only eat three foods ever again. What would they be?


[00:25:58.350] - Dominique

Oh, well, I did mention Pinon earlier. So, I would say that. If you've never tried it, try to see if you can find some. Peaches.


[00:26:06.980] - Dominique

I love peaches and then probably beans. Yeah.


[00:26:09.300] - Ashley

We had a dinner last night and all I kept thinking was, "gosh", and we're probably going to eat with the leftovers tonight. But I wish I had made beans with it because I was eating it, and I was like it would have been better with beans. So tonight we're having refried beans with it because that's what it was missing yesterday.


[00:26:25.800] - Dominique

Yeah. They're so versatile. You can throw some in a salad, bean burrito, you know, just beans by itself. We had taco salad last night and it had beans in it, so we have beans, like, at least three times a week.


[00:26:36.760] - Ashley

Do you have a favorite type of bean?


[00:26:38.340] - Dominique

I love them all. Black beans, pinto beans - those are probably my two favorites.


[00:26:45.050] - Ashley

My husband doesn't like black beans. I've learned over time that if I make chili, if I don't put black beans in it, if I just do like Pinto or kidney or Navy, he's more likely to enjoy it because for whatever reason, the black beans, and those are some of my favorites.


[00:26:59.890] - Dominique

Yeah. Oh, cannellili beans too. That's one of my favorites too.


[00:27:09.480] - Sabrina

And then my second question would be, do you prefer breakfast foods or dinner foods?


[00:27:15.660] - Dominique

Oh, goodness. Well, breakfast foods definitely on the weekend. Dinner foods during the week.


[00:27:21.080] - Ashley

It's like less hectic in the morning on the weekend?


[00:27:24.570] - Dominique



[00:27:24.790] - Dominique

Just a leisure breakfast. You don't have to rush or run out the door. You're just like, all right, I'm going to sit down and enjoy this.


[00:27:31.080] - Sabrina

Do you have a favorite weekend breakfast meal that you make?


[00:27:33.640] - Dominique

So we'll have blue corn meal, the cereal. We've experimented with that and we've done muffins and pancakes. I got special occasion foods.


[00:27:45.680] - Sabrina

And then my last question is, if you could have dinner with three people dead or alive, who would they be?


[00:27:52.010] - Dominique

Oh, goodness. Three people. Well, I probably would have my grandfather, Jimmy Fallon would be fun to hang out with, and the third person, probably my husband.


[00:28:04.810] - Ashley

Oh, my goodness. Well, this was such a great conversation. Thank you for opening your experience and your expertise up to us and our students. And I just think they're going to really enjoy this conversation. And I know part of talking about food and culture is asking people to be vulnerable.


[00:28:23.460] - Ashley

So I just appreciate that so much. And I know our students will too. So thank you for being on the show today. Thank you so much.


[00:28:30.570] - Dominique

Alright. Bye.